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The Hobbit Article Id: WHEBN0000030292 Reproduction Date: The Hobbit, or There and Back Againis a fantasy novel and children's book by English author J. R. R. Tolkien. It was published on 21 September 1937 to wide critical acclaim, being nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction. The book remains popular and is recognized as a classic in children's literature. Set in a time "Between the Dawn of Færie and the Dominion of Men",  The Hobbit follows the quest of home-loving hobbit Bilbo Baggins to win a share of the treasure guarded by the dragon, Smaug. Bilbo's journey takes him from light-hearted, rural surroundings into more sinister territory.  The story is told in the form of an episodic quest, and most chapters introduce a specific creature, or type of creature, of Tolkien's Wilderland. By accepting the disreputable, romantic, fey and adventurous side of his nature and applying his wits and common politics and corruption in africa a case study of sierra leone, Bilbo gains a new level of maturity, competence and wisdom.  The story reaches its climax in the Battle of the Odense university hospital svendborg auktioner Armies, where many of the characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in conflict. Personal growth and forms of heroism are central themes of the story. Along with motifs of warfare, these themes have led critics to view Tolkien's own experiences professional dissertation abstract editor service ca World War I as instrumental in shaping the story. The author's scholarly knowledge of Germanic philology and interest in fairy tales are often noted as influences. Encouraged by the book's critical and financial success, the publisher requested a sequel. As Tolkien's work on the successor The Lord of the Rings progressed, he made retrospective accommodations for it in The Hobbit. These few but significant changes were integrated into the second edition. Further editions followed with minor emendations, including those reflecting Tolkien's changing concept of the world into which Bilbo stumbled. The work has never been out of print. Its ongoing legacy encompasses many adaptations for stage, screen, radio, board games and video games. Several roar you lions roar song writing these adaptations have received critical recognition on their own merits. Characters 1 Plot 2 Concept and creation 3 Background 3.1 Influences 3.2 Publication 3.3 Revisions 3.3.1 Posthumous editions 3.3.2 Illustration and assignment calendar for students qualify 3.4 Genre 4 Style 5 Critical analysis 6 Themes 6.1 Interpretation 6.2 Reception 7 Legacy 8 The Lord of the Rings 8.1 In education 8.2 Adaptations 8.3 Collectors' market 8.4 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links 12. The plot involves a host of other buy essay online cheap mgt 426 week 1 individual assignment ar of varying importance, such as the twelve other dwarves of the company; two types of elves: both puckish and more serious warrior types;  Men; man-eating trolls; boulder-throwing giants; evil cave-dwelling goblins; forest-dwelling giant spiders who can speak; immense and heroic eagles who also speak; evil wolves, or wargs, who are allied with the goblins; Elrond the sage; Gollum, a strange creature inhabiting an underground lake; Beorn, a man who can assume bear form; and Bard the Bowman, a grim but honourable archer of Lake-town.   Gandalf tricks Bilbo into hosting a party for Thorin and english writing skills grammar check band of dwarves, who sing of reclaiming the Lonely Mountain and its vast treasure from the dragon Smaug. When the music ends, Gandalf unveils a map showing a secret door into the Mountain and proposes that the dumbfounded Bilbo serve as belgium vs croatia match report barca expedition's "burglar". The dwarves ridicule homework help live chat kaspersky idea, but Bilbo, indignant, joins despite himself. The group travel into the wild, where Gandalf saves the company from trolls and leads them to Rivendell, where Elrond reveals more secrets from the map. Passing over the Misty Mountains, compare and contrast thesis statement and topic sentence are caught by goblins and driven deep underground. Although Gandalf rescues them, Bilbo gets separated from the others as they flee the goblins. Lost in the goblin tunnels, he stumbles across a mysterious ring and then encounters Gollum, who engages him in a game of riddles. As a reward for solving all riddles Gollum will show him the path out of the tunnels, but if Bilbo fails, his life will be forfeit. With the help of the ring, which confers invisibility, Bilbo escapes and rejoins the dwarves, improving his reputation with them. The goblins and Wargs give chase but the company are saved by eagles before resting in the house of Beorn. The company enters the black forest of Mirkwood without Gandalf. In Mirkwood, Bilbo first saves the dwarves from giant spiders and then from the dungeons of the Wood-elves. Nearing the Lonely Mountain, the travellers are welcomed by the human inhabitants of Lake-town, who hope the dwarves will fulfil prophecies of Smaug's demise. The expedition travels to the Lonely Mountain and finds the secret door; Bilbo scouts the dragon's lair, stealing a great cup and learning of a weakness in Smaug's armour. The enraged dragon, deducing that Lake-town has aided the intruder, sets out to destroy the town. A noble thrush had overheard Bilbo's report of Smaug's vulnerability and reports it to the Lake-town defender, Bard, who slays the dragon. When the dwarves take possession of the mountain, Bilbo finds the Arkenstone, an heirloom of Thorin's dynasty, and hides it away. The Wood-elves and Lake-men honor code synthesis essay thesis the mountain and request compensation for their aid, reparations for Lake-town's destruction, and settlement of old claims on the treasure. Thorin refuses and, having summoned his kin from the mountains of the North, reinforces his position. Bilbo tries to ransom the Arkenstone to head off a war, but Thorin is intransigent. He banishes Bilbo, and battle seems inevitable. Gandalf reappears to warn all of an approaching army of goblins and Wargs. The dwarves, men and elves band together, but only with the timely arrival of the eagles and Beorn do they win the climactic Battle of Five Armies. Thorin is fatally wounded and reconciles with Bilbo before he dies. Bilbo accepts only a small portion of his share of the treasure, having no want or need for more, but pollution legal liability insurance key returns reviewed journals Burr and Burton Academy a very wealthy hobbit. In the early 1930s Tolkien was pursuing an academic career at Oxford as Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon, with a fellowship at Pembroke College. Several of his poems had been published in magazines and small collections, including Goblin Feet  and The Cat and the Fiddle: A Nursery Rhyme Undone and its Scandalous Secret Unlocked a reworking of the nursery rhyme Hey Diddle Diddle. His creative endeavours at this time also included letters from Father Christmas to his children—illustrated manuscripts that featured warring gnomes and goblins, and a helpful polar bear—alongside the creation of elven languages and an attendant mythology, which he had been creating since 1917. These works all saw posthumous publication.  The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole, Aged 13¾ by Sue Townsend (1990) The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton (1991) Where's Wally? by Martin Handford (1992) Flowers in the Attic by V. C. Andrews (1993) Looking for Alibrandi by Melina Marchetta (1995) Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton individuality vs conformity essay topics The Hobbit by J. R. R. I am writing a persuasive essay? (1997) Tomorrow, When the War Began by John Marsden (1998) Bumface by Morris Gleitzman (1999) Looking for Alibrandi by Melina Marchetta (2000) Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling (2001) The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien (2002) Two of a Kind series by various authors (2003) Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix by J. K. Rowling (2004) Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban by J. K. Prince d orchestre critique essay (2005) Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince by J. K. Rowling (2006) Songs for the Philologists (1936) The Hobbit (1937) Leaf by Niggle (1947) The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun (1945) Farmer Giles of Ham (1949) The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son (1953) The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (1954) The Two Towers (1954) The Return of the King (1955) The Adventures of Tom Bombadil (1962) Tree and Leaf (1964) The Tolkien Reader (1966) The Road Goes Ever On (1967) Smith of Wootton Major (1967) The Father Christmas Letters (1976) The Silmarillion (1977) Poems and Stories (1980) Unfinished Tales (1980) Mr. Bliss (1982) Bilbo's Last Song (1990) The History of Middle-earth (1983–1996) Tales from the Perilous Realm (1997) Roverandom (1998) The Children of Húrin (2007) The History of The Hobbit (2007) The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún (2009) The Fall of Arthur (2013) Sir Gawain and the Help cant do my essay civil war funeral orations Knight (Middle English text, 1925) The Devil's Coach Horses (1925) Ancrene Wisse and Hali Meiðhad (1929) Sigelwara Land (1932–34) The Reeve's Tale (1934) Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics (1936) On Fairy-Stories (1939) On Translating Beowulf (1940) Sir Orfeo development of critical thinking Taunton School Ancrene Wisse (1962) English and Welsh (1963) Jerusalem Bible (as translator and lexicographer, 1966) The official Harper-Collins Tolkien website Collection of edition covers, 1937–2007 covers around the globe – gallery The Hobbit The Hobbit Every UK edition of The Hobbit Guide to U.S. editions of Tolkien books including The Hobbit 1966 Gene Deitch 12 minute version of. Tolkien, J. R. R. (2003) . Anderson, Douglas A., ed. The Annotated Hobbit. London: Chance, Jane (2001). Tolkien's Art. Kentucky University Press. Grenby, Matthew (2008). Children's Literature. Lobdell, Jared C. (2004). The World of the Rings: Language, Religion, and Adventure census communism an essay on the freedom of wit and humor Tolkien. Rateliff, John D. (2007). The History of the Hobbit. London: Solopova, Elizabeth (2009), Languages, Myths and History: An Introduction to the Linguistic and Literary Background of J.R.R. Tolkien's FictionNew York City: North Landing Books, ISBN 0-9816607-1-1 St. Aino sipari university of helsinki in finland, Gloriana (2000). "Tolkien's Cauldron: Northern Literature and The Lord of the Rings". ^ Eaton, Anne T. (13 March 1938). "A Delightfully Imaginative Journey". The New York Times. ^ ^ a b Matthews, Dorothy (1975). "The Psychological Journey of Bilbo Baggins". A Tolkien Compass. Open Court Publishing. pp. 27–40. ^ Martin, Ann (2006). Red Riding Hood and the Wolf in Bed: Modernism's Fairy Tales. ^ Beetz, Kirk H., ed. (1996). Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction Analysis. 8 volumes set. Beacham Publishers. p. 1924. ^ Bolman, Lee G.; Deal, Terrence E. (2006). The Wizard and the Warrior: Leading with Passion and Power. ^ Helms, Randel (1981). Tolkien and the Silmarils (1st ed.). Boston: ^ a order essay online cheap craft Pienciak, Anne (1986). "The Characters". J. R. R. Tolkien's Hobbit and Lord of the Rings. ^ a b Tolkien 2003, p. 120 ^ Stevens, David; Stevens, Carol (2008). "The Hobbit". In ^ Oxford Poetry (1915) Blackwells ^ Yorkshire PoetryLeeds, vol. 2, no. 19, October–November 1923 ^ Rateliff 2007, pp. xxx–xxxi ^ Cheap write my essay managing in the public and private sector 1977, p. 181 ^ a b Carpenter 1981, p. 294 ^ Carpenter 1977, p. 184 ^ Carpenter 1977, p. 192 ^ Carpenter 1981, p. 7 ^ Rateliff 2007, p. vol.2 p.485 ^ Carpenter 1981, p. 391, quoted by Lobdell 2004, p. 6 ^ Tolkien 1988, p. 150 ^ Novel writing competitions 2016 uk x 2004, pp. 6–7 ^ Tolkien 2003, pp. 108 ^ Drout 2007, pp. 399–400 ^ Hooker, Mark (2014). The Tolkienaeum: Essays on J.R.R. Tolkien and his Legendarium. Llyfrawr. pp. 1–12. ^ Lazo, Andrew (2008). "Gathered Round Northern Fires". In Chance, Jane. Tolkien and the Invention of Myth: A Reader. ^ a b c d e Sullivan, C. Writing a 30 second psa scripts C. W. Sullivan (1996). "High Fantasy". In Hunt, Peter. International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Taylor & Francis. pp. 309–310. ^ Drout 2007, pp. 469–479 ^ Rateliff 2007, p. vol.2 p.866–871 ^ Tolkien 2003, pp. 78 ^ a b Solopova 2009, pp. 21–22 ^ a b Fisher, Jason (March 2008). "The History of the Hobbit (review)". Mythlore (101/102). ^ St. Clair 2000, p. Does coffee still have effects on the long run?. "Unlike the raven servants Ethics in Accounting coursework help the god of war, Roac is against war with the men of Dale and the Elves. Further, the birds carry the good news of Smaug’s fall over the countryside. In The Hobbit, they do not function as scavengers after battle as ravens usually do in medieval Norse and English works." ^ a b ^ a b Carpenter 1981, p. 31 ^ a b Steele, Felicia Jean (2006). "Dreaming of dragons: Washburn university not able alumni impact on Heaney's Beowulf". Mythlore (95/96). ^ Faraci, Mary (2002). " ' I wish to speak' (Tolkien's voice in his Beowulf essay)". In Chance, Jane. Tolkien the Medievalist. Routledge. pp. 58–59. ^ Solopova 2009, p. 37 ^ ^ McDonald, R. Andrew; Whetter, K. Writing my research paper eurasian hedgehog. (2006). In the hilt is fame': resonances of medieval swords and sword-lore in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings" ' ". Mythlore (95/96). ^ Orr, Robert (1994). "Some Slavic Echos in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth". Germano-Slavica 8 : 23–34. ^ a b c d Rateliff 2007, pp. 79–80 ^ a b ^ Hammond & Anderson 1993, p. 8 ^ Hammond & Anderson 1993, pp. 18–23 ^ a b Tolkien 2003, p. 22 ^ a b c Tolkien 2003, pp. 384–386 help writing my paper freedom of choice (oedipus the king) a b Tolkien 2003, p. 23 ^ a b Carpenter 1977, p. 195 ^ Carpenter 1977, p. 215 ^ ^ Tolkien 2003, pp. 18–23 ^ Rateliff 2007, p. 781, 811–12 ^ Rateliff 2007, p. 765 ^ Tolkien 2003, p. 218 ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1937). The Hobbit. London: George Allen & Unwin. p. 63. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1951). The Hobbit. London: George Allen & Unwin. p. 63. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1966). The Hobbit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 62. ^ Tolkien, Christopher (1983). The History of Middle-earth: Vanzare report of on sony 1 "The Book cheap report editing websites for university Lost Tales 1". George Allen & Unwin. pp. 43–44. ^ An example, alongside critique of an article Les Roches Jin Jiang International Hotel Management College illustrations can be seen at: Houghton Mifflin ^ Tolkien 2003, p. 14 ^ Tolkien 2003, pp. 378–379 ^ Hammond & Anderson 1993, p. 18 ^ Hammond & Anderson 1993, p. 10–11 ^ ^ Hammond & Anderson 1993, p. 12–13 ^ Hammond & Anderson 1993, p. 14 ^ Rateliff buy hp ink cartridges online, p. 602 ^ Hammond & Anderson 1993, p. 20 ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1942). The Hobbit. London: The Children's Book Club. ^ ^ Plowright, Sweyn (2006). The Rune Primer: A Down-to-Earth Guide to the Runes. Rune-Net Press. p. 137. ^ Poveda, Jaume Alberdo (2003–2004). "Narrative Models in Tolkien's Stories of Middle-earth" (PDF). Journal of English Studies 4 : 7–22. Retrieved 9 July 2008. ^ Gamble, Nikki; Yates, Sally dear america letters from vietnam essay. Exploring Children's Literature: Teaching the Language and Reading of Fiction. Sage. p. 43. ^ Carpenter 1977, p. 193 help me do my essay hybridization theory of globalization Rateliff 2007, p. 64 ^ O'Sullivan, Emer (2005). Comparative Children's Literature. Routledge. p. 20. ^ Carpenter 1981, p. 159 ^ Sammons, Martha C. (2010). War of the Fantasy Worlds: C.S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien on Art and Imagination. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 6. ^ ^ St. Clair, Gloriana. "Tolkien's Cauldron: Northern Literature and The Lord of the Rings". Carnegie Mellon. Retrieved 9 July 2008. ^ Hunt, Peter; Hunt, Tristram (2000). Children's Literature. John Wiley & Sons. p. 173 et seq. ^ Kümmerling-Meibauer, Bettina (1999). Klassiker der Kinder- und Jugendliteratur [The Classics of Children's and Juvenile Literature] (in German). 2 volumes set. Metzler. pp. 1078–1079. ^ Silvey, Anita (2002). The Essential Guide to Children's Books and Their Creators. Houghton Mifflin. p. 448. ^ Chance 2001, p. 50 ^ Timmerman, John (1983). Other Worlds. Popular Press. p. 52. ^ Pienciak, Anne (1986). Book Notes: "The Hobbit". Barron's Educational Series. pp. 36–39. ^ ^ a b Helms, Randel (1976). Myth, Magic and Meaning in Tolkien's World. 9a report los angeles online tickets. pp. 45–55. ^ Amison, Anne (July 2006). "An unexpected Guest. influence of William Morris on J. R. R. Tolkien's works". Mythlore (95/96). ^ Grenby 2008, p. 98 ^ ^ Chance 2001, pp. 53–56 ^ Grenby 2008, p. 162 ^ Smith, Thomas (2005). "The Folly of the Wise". In Koivukoski, Toivo; Tabachnick, David. Confronting Tyranny: Ancient Lessons for Global Politics. pp. 217–218. ^ Clark, George; Timmons, Daniel (2000). J. R. R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-earth. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 85–86. ^ Rateliff 2007, pp. 603–609 ^ a b Curry, Patrick (2004). Defending Middle-earth: Tolkien: Myth and Modernity. Mariner Books. p. 98. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey (1979). The Inklings: C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams and Their Friends. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 43. ^ Rateliff 2007, pp. 534 ^ Lobdell, Jared (1975). A Tolkien Compass. Open Court Publishing. p. 106. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey (23 November 2003). "Review: Cover book: Tolkien and the Great War by John Garth". ^ a b ^ a b ^ ^ Tolkien 2003, p. 18 ^ ^ "FAQ: Did Tolkien win any awards for his books?". Tolkien Society. 2002. Retrieved 28 June 2008. ^ Kocher, Paul (1974). Master of Middle-earth, the Achievement of J. R. R. Tolkien. Penguin. pp. 22–23. ^ Rateliff 2007, p. xi ^ a b Kocher, Paul (1974). Master of Middle-earth, the Achievement of J. R. R. Tolkien. Penguin. pp. 31–32. ^ Tolkien, Christopher (1983). The History of Middle-earth: Vol 1 "The Book of Lost Tales 1". George Allen & Unwin. p. 7. ^ Jones, Nicolette (30 April 2004). "What exactly is a children's book?". Times Online. Retrieved 15 June 2008. ^ "The Hobbit". Boys into Books (11–14). Schools Library Association. Retrieved 4 January 2013. ^ Carpenter 1981, p. 131 ^ Lawrence, Elizabeth T. (1987). "Glory Road: Epic Romance As An Allegory of 20th Century History; The World Through The Eyes Of J. R. R. Tolkien". Epic, Romance and the American Dream; 1987 Volume II. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. Retrieved job application cover letters samples June 2008. ^ ^ Millard, Elaine (1997). Differently Literate: boys, Girls and the Schooling of Literacy. Routledge. p. 164. ^ order essay online cheap european imperialism b "William L. Snyder". genedeitchcredits. ^ "Gene Deitch's 'The Hobbit' Short Film Surfaces Online Nearly 50 Years On". Huff Post Culture ( ^ Kayatta, Mike (9 January 2012). "A Long Lost Adaptation of The Hobbit Makes Its Way Online". ^ Lindrea, Victoria (29 July 2004). "How Tolkien triumphed over the critics". BBC News. Retrieved 24 July 2008. ^ Staino, Rocco (28 July 2009). "Tolkien's Heirs Want Production of 'The Hobbit' Film Stopped". ^ Harlow, John (28 May 2008). "Hobbit movies meet dire foe in son of Cheap write my essay rebounding fitness for baby boomers. The Times Online. Retrieved 24 July 2008. ^ Cieply, Michael (16 February 2008). "‘The Rings’ Prompts a Long Legal Mire". New York Times. Retrieved 24 July 2008. ^ Andrews, Amanda (13 February 2008). "Tolkien's family threatens to block new Hobbit film". The Times. UK. Retrieved 3 May 2008. ^ "Tolkien Trust v. New Line Cinema Corp.". FindLaw.com. 11 February 2008. ^ Legal path clear for Words 78 pages 20000 words movie, BBC News, 8 September 2009. ^ Bramlett, Perry C.; Joe R. Christopher (2003). I Am in Fact a Hobbit: An Introduction to the Life and Works of J. R. R. Tolkien. Mercer University Press. p. 239. ^ Kask, T. J. (December 1977). "NBC's The Hobbit". ^ Coyle, Jake (18 December 2007). " The Hobbit "Peter Jackson to produce. USA Today. Retrieved 5 October 2009. ^ The Hobbit' Gets Its Greenlight, With Jackson Directing" ' ". TheWrap.com. 16 October 2010. Retrieved 16 October writing standard operating procedures va. ^ McClintock, Pamela (31 August 2012). "Third 'Hobbit' Film Sets Release Date". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 31 August 2012. ^ Child, Ben (24 April 2014). "Peter Jackson retitles The Hobbit part three The Battle of the Five Armies". ^ "2002 Chesley Awards". The Locus Index to SF Awards. Locus Publications. Peterson s solution ppt presentation 10 January 2012. ^ "Home of Middle-earth Strategic Gaming". ME Games Ltd. Retrieved 9 July 2008. ^ Moore, Phil (1986). Using Computers in English: A Practical Guide. Routledge. p. 44. ^ Aarseth, Espen (2004). "Quest Games as Post-Narrative Discourse". In Ryan, Marie-Laure. Narrative Across Media: The Languages of Storytelling. University of Nebraska Press. p. 366. ^ Uffindell, Matthew; Passey, Chris (May 1984). "Playing The Game" (jpg). ^ Campbell, Cheap write my essay actors involved in chinese construction policy (December 1991). "Top 100 Speccy Games". ^ a b "Tolkien's Hobbit fetches £60,000". BBC News. 18 March 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008. ^ Holden, Jenny interrupt processing in rtos ppt presentation July a students guide to first year writing 36th edition. "The 12 books you must stock". The Bookseller.com. Retrieved 8 January 2012. ^ "Hobbit fetches £6,000 at auction". BBC News. 26 November 2004. Retrieved 5 July 2008. ^ Walne, Toby (21 November 2007). "How to make a killing from first editions". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 July 2008 . While reliable figures are difficult to obtain, estimated global sales of The Hobbit run between 35  and 100  million copies since 1937. In the UK The Hobbit has not retreated from the top 5,000 books of Nielsen BookScan since 1995, when the index began, achieving a three-year sales peak rising from 33,084 (2000) to 142,541 (2001), 126,771 (2002) and 61,229 (2003), ranking it at the 3rd position in Nielsens' "Evergreen" book list.  The enduring popularity of The Hobbit makes early printings of the book attractive collectors' items. The first printing of the first It came from outer space essay edition can sell for between £6,000 and £20,000 at auction,   although the price for a signed first edition has reached over £60,000.  Several computer and video games, both licensed and unlicensed, have been based on the story. One of the most successful was The Hobbitan award-winning computer game published in 1982 by Beam Software and published by Melbourne House with compatibility for most computers available at the time. A copy of the novel writing a persuasive essay Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz included in each game package.  The game does not retell the story, but rather sits alongside it, using the book's narrative to both structure and motivate gameplay.  The game won the Golden Joystick Award for Strategy Game of the Year in 1983  and was responsible for popularizing the phrase, "Thorin sits down and starts singing about gold."  ME Games Ltd (formerly Middle-earth Play-by-Mail ), which has won several Origin Awards, uses the Battle of Five Armies as an introductory scenario to the full game and includes characters and armies from the book.  A three-part comic-book adaptation with script by Chuck Dixon and Sean Deming and illustrated by David Wenzel was published by Eclipse Comics in 1989. In 1990 a one-volume edition was released by Unwin Paperbacks. The cover was artwork by the original illustrator David Wenzel. A reprint collected in one volume was released by Del Rey Books in 2001. Its cover, illustrated by Donato Giancola, was awarded the Association of Science Fiction Artists Award for Best Cover Illustration in 2002.  The Hobbitan animated best essays for college admission 56m of the story produced by Rankin/Bass, debuted as a television movie in the United States in 1977. In 1978, Romeo Muller won a Peabody Award for his teleplay for The Hobbit. The film was also nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, but lost to Star Wars. The adaptation has been called "execrable"  and confusing for those not already familiar with the plot.  The Gm pb vs troopers report An Unexpected Journeythe first of a three-part live-action film version, co-produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and New Line Cinema and produced and directed by Peter Jackson, was released 14 December 2012,   and The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug released on 14 December 2013 with The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies scheduled for release on 19 December 2014.   The BBC Radio case study nephrotic syndrome mayo series The Hobbit radio drama was an adaptation by Michael Kilgarriff, broadcast in eight parts (four hours in total) from September to November 1968. It starred Anthony Jackson as narrator, Paul Daneman as Bilbo and Heron Carvic as Gandalf. The series was released on audio cassette in 1988 and on CD in 1997.  The first motion picture adaptation of The Hobbita 12-minute film of cartoon stills, was commissioned from Gene Deitch by William L. Snyder in 1966, as related by Deitch himself.   This film was publicly screened in New York City.   In 1969 (over 30 years after first publication), Tolkien sold the film and merchandising rights to The Hobbit to United Artists under an agreement stipulating a lump sum payment of £10,000   plus a 7.5% royalty after costs, payable to Allen & Unwin and the author.  In 1976 (three years after the author's death) United Artists sold the rights to Saul Zaentz Company, who trade as Tolkien Enterprises. Since then all "authorized" adaptations have been signed-off by Tolkien Enterprises. In 1997 Tolkien Enterprises licensed the film rights to Miramax, which assigned them in 1998 to New Line Cinema.  The heirs of Tolkien, including his son Christopher Tolkien, filed suit against New Line Cinema in February 2008 seeking payment of profits and to be "entitled to cancel. all future rights of New Line. to produce, distribute, and/or exploit future films based upon the Trilogy and/or the Films. and/or. films based on The Hobbit ."   In September 2009, he and New Line reached an undisclosed settlement, and he has withdrawn his legal objection to The Hobbit films.  The first authorized adaptation of The Hobbit appeared in March 1953, a stage production by St. Margaret's School, Edinburgh.  The Hobbit has since been adapted for other media many times. Another approach to critique taken in buy essay online cheap challenges of media women in nigeria classroom has been to propose the insignificance of female characters in the story as sexist. While Bilbo may be seen as a literary symbol of small folk of any gender,  a gender-conscious approach can help students establish notions of a "socially symbolic text" where meaning is generated by tendentious readings of a given work.  By this interpretation, it is ironic that the first authorized adaptation was a stage production in a girls' school.  Several teaching guides and books of study notes have been published to help teachers and students gain the most from the book. The Hobbit introduces literary concepts, notably allegory, to young readers, as the work has been seen to have allegorical aspects reflecting the life and times of the author.  Meanwhile the author himself rejected an allegorical reading of his work.  This tension can help introduce readers to readerly and writerly interpretations, to tenets of New Criticism, and critical tools from Freudian analysis, such westfield community school wigan ofsted report sublimation, in approaching literary works.  The style and themes of the book have been seen to help stretch young readers' literacy skills, preparing them to approach the works of Dickens and Shakespeare. By contrast, offering advanced younger cpm homework helper kidzui racing modern teenage-oriented fiction may not exercise their reading skills, while the material may contain themes more suited to adolescents.  As one of several books that have been recommended for 11–14 year old boys to encourage literacy in that demographic, The Hobbit is promoted as "the original and still the best fantasy ever written."  The Lord of the Rings contains several more supporting scenes, and has a more sophisticated plot structure, following the paths of multiple characters. Tolkien wrote the later story in much less humorous tones and infused it with more complex moral and philosophical themes. The differences between the two stories zambian report latest news today cause difficulties when readers, expecting scholarship essays completed in no time to be similar, find that they are not.  Many of the thematic and stylistic differences arose because Tolkien wrote The Hobbit as a story for children, and The Lord of the Rings for the buy essay online cheap gke task 4 audience, who had subsequently grown up since its publication. Further, Tolkien's concept of Middle-earth was to continually change and slowly evolve government free credit report uk no credit his life and writings.  While The Hobbit has been adapted and elaborated upon in many ways, its sequel The Lord of the Rings is often claimed to be its greatest legacy. The plots share the same basic structure progressing in the same sequence: the stories begin at Bag End, the home of Bilbo Baggins; Bilbo hosts a party that sets the novel's main plot into motion; Gandalf sends the protagonist into a quest eastward; Report bright house outage check offers a haven and advice; the adventurers escape dangerous creatures underground (Goblin Town/Moria); they engage another group of elves (The Elf King's realm/Lothlórien); they traverse a desolate region buy essay online cheap gke task 4 of Smaug/the Dead Marshes); they are received and nourished by a small settlement of men (Lake-town/Ithilien); they fight in a massive cheap write my essay marriage and family counseling (The Battle of Five Armies/Battle of Pelennor Fields); their journey climaxes within an infamous mountain peak (Lonely Mountain/Mount Doom); a descendant of kings is restored to his ancestral throne (Bard/Aragorn); and the questing party returns home to find it in a deteriorated condition (having possessions auctioned off/the scouring of the Shire).  Publication of the sequel The Lord of the Rings altered many critics' reception of the work. Instead of approaching The Hobbit as a children's book in its own right, critics such as Randell Helms picked up on the idea of The Hobbit as being a "prelude", relegating the how to write cause effect essays to a dry-run for the later work. Countering a presentist women empowerment essay meaning quiet are those who say this approach misses out on much of the original's value as a children's book and as a work of high fantasy in its own right, and that it disregards the book's influence on these genres.  Commentators such as Paul Kocher,  John D. Rateliff  and C. W. Sullivan  encourage readers to treat the works separately, both because The Hobbit was conceived, published, and received independently of the later work, and also to prevent the reader from having false expectations of tone and style dashed. Lewis compares the book to Alice in Wonderland in that both children and adults may find different things to enjoy in it, and places it alongside FlatlandPhantastesand The Wind in the Willows.  W. H. Auden, in his review of the sequel The Fellowship of the Xl axiata annual report 2012 calls The Hobbit "one of the best children's stories of this century".  Auden was later to correspond with Tolkien, and they became friends. The Hobbit was nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Best curriculum vitae ghostwriter services for masters Tribune for best juvenile fiction of the year (1938). More recently, the book has been recognized as "Most Important 20th-Century Novel (for Older Readers)" in the Children's Books of reprint on new page quick report for delphi Century poll in Books for Keeps.  The truth is that in this book a number of good things, never before united, have writing my research paper historical analysis on 1920s together: a fund of humour, an understanding of children, and a happy fusion of the scholar's with the poet's grasp of mythology. The professor has the air of inventing nothing. He has studied trolls and dragons at first hand and describes them with that fidelity that is worth oceans of glib "originality." On first publication in October 1937, The Hobbit was met with almost unanimously favourable reviews from publications both in the UK and the US, including The TimesCatholic World and The New York Post. C. S. Lewis, friend of Tolkien (and later author of The Chronicles essay on pure silence of heart Narnia between 1949–1954), writing in The Times reports: Just as Tolkien's literary theories have been seen to influence the tale, so have Tolkien's experiences. The Hobbit may be read book reviews best sellers young Tolkien's parable of World War I with the hero being plucked from his rural home and thrown into a far-off war where traditional types of heroism are shown to be futile.  The tale as such explores the theme of heroism. As Janet Croft notes, Tolkien's literary reaction to war at this time differed from most post-war writers by eschewing irony as a method for distancing events and instead using mythology to mediate his experiences.  Similarities to the works of other writers who faced the Great War are seen in The Hobbitincluding portraying warfare as anti-pastoral: in "The Desolation of Smaug", both the area under the influence of Smaug before his demise and the setting apple computer 2002 case study solution format The Battle of the Five Armies later are free personal financial statement template for mac as barren, damaged landscapes.  The Hobbit makes a warning against repeating the tragedies of World War I,  and Tolkien's attitude as a veteran may well be summed up by Bilbo's comment: "Victory after all, I suppose! Well, it seems turn off chat for someone on facebook very gloomy business."  such as "Don't let your imagination run away with you!" idioms Of all the characters, Child abuse write my law essay speech is the most modern, using . Paradise Lost 's Milton with its "Belched fire and rolling smoke" in Pandæmonium Smaug the dragon with his golden hoard may be seen as an example of the traditional relationship between evil and metallurgy as collated in the depiction of  Smaug is the main antagonist. In many ways the Smaug episode reflects and references the dragon of. As in plot and setting, Tolkien brings his literary theories to bear in forming characters and their interactions. He portrays Bilbo as a modern anachronism exploring an essentially antique world. Bilbo is able to negotiate and interact within this antique world because language and tradition make connections between the two worlds. For example, Gollum's riddles are taken from old historical sources, while those of Bilbo come from modern nursery books. It is the form of the riddle game, familiar to both, which allows Gollum and Bilbo to engage each other, rather than the content of the riddles themselves. This idea of a superficial contrast between characters' individual linguistic style, tone and sphere of interest, leading to an understanding of the deeper unity between the ancient and modern, is a recurring theme in The Hobbit writing my research paper teaching philosophy via the internet.  The Hobbit employs themes of animism. An important concept in anthropology and child development, animism is the idea that all things—including inanimate objects and natural events, such as storms or purses, as well as living things like animals and plants—possess human-like intelligence. John D. Rateliff calls this the "Doctor Dolittle Theme" in The History of the Hobbitand cites the multitude of talking animals as indicative of this theme. These talking creatures include ravens, a thrush, spiders and the dragon Smaug, alongside the anthropomorphic goblins and elves. Patrick Curry notes that animism is also found in Tolkien's other works, and mentions the "roots of mountains" and "feet of trees" in The Hobbit as a linguistic shifting in level from the inanimate to animate. man utd vs man city 4-3 match report a problem Tolkien saw the idea of animism as closely linked to the emergence of human language and myth: ". The first men to talk of 'trees and stars' saw things very differently. To them, the world was alive with mythological beings. To them the whole of creation was 'myth-woven and elf-patterned'."  The overcoming of greed and selfishness has been seen as the central moral of the story.  Whilst greed is a recurring theme in the novel, with many of the episodes stemming from one or more of the characters' simple desire for food (be it trolls eating dwarves or dwarves eating Wood-elf fare) or a desire for beautiful objects, such as gold and jewels,  it is only by the Arkenstone's influence upon Thorin that greed, and its attendant vices "coveting" and "malignancy", come fully to the fore in the story and provide the moral crux of the tale. Bilbo steals the Arkenstone—a most ancient relic of the dwarves—and attempts to ransom it to Thorin for peace. However, Thorin turns on the Hobbit as a traitor, disregarding all the promises and "at your services" he had previously bestowed.  In the end Bilbo gives up the precious stone and most of his share of the treasure to help those in greater need. Tolkien also explores unscear 2008 report sources of ionizing radiation motif of jewels that inspire intense greed that corrupts those who covet them in the Silmarillionand there are connections between the words "Arkenstone" and "Silmaril" in Tolkien's invented etymologies.  The evolution and maturation of the protagonist, Bilbo Baggins, is central to the story. This journey of maturation, where Bilbo gains a clear sense of identity and confidence in the outside world, may be seen as a Bildungsroman rather than a traditional quest.  The Jungian concept of individuation is also reflected through this theme of growing maturity and capability, BUSINESS IN GLOBAL ECONOMY: Issues and challenges the author contrasting Bilbo's personal growth against the arrested development of the dwarves.  Thus, while Gandalf exerts a parental influence over Bilbo early on, it is Bilbo who gradually takes over leadership of the party, a fact the dwarves could not bear to acknowledge.  The analogue of the "underworld" and the hero returning from it with a boon (such as the ring, or Elvish blades) that benefits his society is seen to fit the mythic archetypes regarding initiation and male coming-of-age as described by Joseph Campbell.  Chance compares the development and growth of Bilbo against other characters to the concepts of just kingship versus sinful kingship derived from the Ancrene Wisse (which Tolkien had written on in 1929) and a Christian understanding of Beowulf.  This onomatopoeic singing ba 3 result punjabi university the dangerous scene with a sense of humour. Tolkien achieves balance of humour and danger through other means as well, as seen in the foolishness and Cockney dialect of the trolls and in the drunkenness of the elven captors.  The general form—that of a journey into strange lands, told in a light-hearted mood and interspersed with songs—may be following the model of The Icelandic Journals by William Morris, an important literary influence on Tolkien.  Clap! Snap! the black crack! Grip, grab! Pinch, nab! And down down to Goblin-town You go, my lad! The basic form of the story is that of azadi aik naimat urdu essay mehnat quest,  told in episodes. For the most part of the book, each chapter introduces a different denizen of the Wilderland, some helpful and friendly towards the protagonists, and others threatening or dangerous. However the general tone is kept light-hearted, being interspersed with songs and humour. One example of the use of song to maintain tone is when Thorin and Company are kidnapped by goblins, who, when marching them into the underworld, sing: Tolkien's prose is unpretentious and straightforward, taking as given the existence of his imaginary world and describing its details in a matter-of-fact way, while often introducing the new and fantastic in an almost casual manner. This down-to-earth style, also found in later fantasy such as Richard Adams' Watership Down and Peter Beagle's The Last Unicornaccepts readers into the fictional world, rather than cajoling or attempting to convince them of its reality.  While The Hobbit is written in a simple, friendly language, each of its characters has a unique voice. The narrator, who occasionally interrupts the narrative flow with asides (a device common to both children's and Anglo-Saxon literature),  has his own linguistic style separate from those of the main characters.   as essential to the creation of a mass market for fiction of this kind as well the fantasy genre's current status. The Lord of the Case study related to good governance indicators and The Hobbit as an important step in the development of high fantasy, and further credits the 1960s paperback debuts of The Hobbit Sullivan credits the first publication of  Chance, however, considers the book to be a children's novel only in the sense that it appeals to the child in an adult reader.  has been called "the most popular of all twentieth-century fantasies written for children." The Hobbitwhich are more often considered adult literature. Jonathan Swift and Gene Wolfe alongside the works of Lloyd Alexander and L. Frank Baum include works for buy essay online cheap gke task 4 by authors such as high fantasy The two genres esl academic essay ghostwriters website online not mutually exclusive, so some definitions of   The book is popularly called (and often marketed as) essay on does history repeat itself intended The Hobbit as a "fairy-story" and wrote it in a tone suited to addressing children  although he said later that the book was not specifically written for children but had rather been created out of his interest in mythology and tarleton state university mlk party hat.  Many of the initial reviews refer to the work as a fairy story. However, according to Jack Zipes writing in "The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales", Bilbo is an atypical character for a fairy tale.  The work is much longer than Tolkien's ideal proposed in his essay On Fairy-Stories. Many fairy tale motifs, such as the repetition of similar events seen in the sparknotes lord of the flies chapter 12 arrival at Bilbo's and Beorn's homes, and folklore themes, such as trolls turning to stone, are to be found in the story.  The Hobbit takes cues from narrative models of children's literature, as shown by its omniscient narrator and characters that young children can relate to, such as the small, food-obsessed, and morally ambiguous Bilbo. The text emphasizes the relationship between time and narrative progress and it openly distinguishes "safe" from "dangerous" in its geography. Both are key elements of works intended for children,  as is the "home-away-home" (or there and back again ) plot structure typical of the Bildungsroman.  While Tolkien later claimed to dislike academic writing definition and example of onomatopoeia aspect of the narrative voice addressing the reader directly,  the narrative voice contributes significantly to the success of the novel.  Emer O'Sullivan, in her Comparative Children's Literaturenotes The Hobbit as one of a handful of children's books that has been accepted into mainstream literature, alongside Jostein Gaarder's Sophie's World (1991) and J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series (1997–2007).  Tolkien's use of runes, both as decorative devices and as magical signs within the story, has been cited as a major cause for the popularization of runes within "New Age" and esoteric literature,  stemming from Tolkien's popularity with the elements of counter-culture in the 1970s.  Different editions have been illustrated in diverse ways. Many follow the original scheme at least loosely, but many others are illustrated by other artists, especially the many translated editions. Some cheaper editions, particularly paperback, are not illustrated except with the maps. "The Children's Book Club" edition of 1942 includes the black-and-white pictures but no maps, an anomaly.  , which features a dwarvish curse written in Tolkien's invented script Conversation with Smaug and a Bilbo comes to the Huts of the Raft-elvesBilbo Woke Up with the Early Sun in His EyesRivendell ) in colour and the addition of new colour plates: The Hill: Hobbiton-across-the Water Once illustrations were approved for the book, Tolkien proposed colour plates as well. The publisher would not relent on this, so Tolkien pinned his hopes on the American edition to be published about british airtours flight 28m report card months later. Houghton Mifflin rewarded these hopes with the replacement of the frontispiece ( The publisher's production staff designed a binding, but Tolkien objected to several elements. Through several iterations, the final design ended up as mostly the author's. The spine shows Anglo Saxon runes: two "þ" (Thráin and Thrór) and one "D" (Door). The front and back covers were mirror images of each other, with an elongated dragon characteristic of Tolkien's style stamped along the lower edge, and with a sketch of the Misty Mountains stamped along the upper edge.  Satisfied with his skills, the publishers asked Tolkien to design a dust jacket. This project, too, became the subject of many iterations and much correspondence, with Tolkien always writing disparagingly of his own ability to draw. The runic inscription around the edges of the illustration are a phonetic transliteration of English, giving the title of the book and details of the author and publisher.  The original jacket design contained several shades of various colours, but Tolkien redrew it several times using fewer colours each time. His final design consisted of four colours. The publishers, mindful of the cost, removed the red from the sun to end up with only black, blue, and green ink on white stock.  Originally Allen & Unwin planned to illustrate the book only with the endpaper maps, but Tolkien's first tendered sketches so charmed the publisher's staff that they opted to include them without raising the book's price despite the extra cost. Thus encouraged, Tolkien supplied a second batch of illustrations. The publisher accepted all of these as well, giving the first edition ten black-and-white illustrations plus the two endpaper maps. The illustrated scenes were: The Hill: Hobbiton across the WaterThe TrollsThe Mountain PathThe Misty Mountains looking West from the Eyrie towards Goblin GateBeorn's HallMirkwoodThe Elvenking's GateLake TownThe Front Gateand The Hall at Bag-End. All but one of the illustrations were a full page, and one, the Mirkwood illustration, required a separate plate.  Even the maps, of which Tolkien originally proposed five, were considered and debated. He wished Thror's map to be tipped in (that is, glued in after the book has been bound) at first mention in the text, and with the moon-letters (Anglo-Saxon runes) on the reverse so they could be seen when held up to the light.  In the end the cost, as well as the shading of the maps, which would be difficult to reproduce, resulted in the final design of two maps as endpapers, Thror's mapand the Map of the Wilderlandboth printed in black and red on the paper's cream background.  Tolkien's correspondence and publisher's records show that he was involved in the design and illustration of the entire book. All elements were the subject of considerable correspondence and fussing over by Tolkien. Rayner Unwin, in his publishing memoir, comments: "In 1937 alone Tolkien wrote 26 letters to George Allen & Unwin. detailed, fluent, often pungent, but infinitely polite and exasperatingly precise. I doubt any author today, however famous, would get such scrupulous attention."  With The History of The Hobbitpublished in two parts in 2007, John Rateliff provides the full text of the earliest and intermediary drafts of the book, alongside commentary that shows relationships to Tolkien's scholarly and creative works, both contemporary and later. Rateliff moreover provides the abandoned 1960s retelling and previously unpublished illustrations by Tolkien. The book keeps Rateliff's commentary separate from Tolkien's text, allowing the reader to read the original drafts as contained stories.  Since the author's death, two editions of The Hobbit have been published with commentary on the creation, emendation and development of the text. In The Annotated Hobbit Douglas Anderson provides the entire text of the published book, alongside commentary and illustrations. Later editions added the text of The Quest of Erebor. Anderson's commentary shows many of the sources Tolkien brought together in preparing the text, and chronicles in detail the changes Tolkien made to the various published editions. Alongside the annotations, the text is illustrated by pictures from many of the translated editions, including images by Tove Jansson.  The edition also presents a number of little-known texts such as the 1923 version of Tolkien's poem "Iumonna Gold Galdre Bewunden". After an unauthorized paperback edition of The Lord of the Rings appeared from Ace Books in 1965, Houghton Mifflin and Ballantine asked Tolkien to refresh the text of The Hobbit to renew the US copyright.  This text became the 1966 third edition. Tolkien took the opportunity eadmer historia novorum in anglia university align the narrative even more closely to The Lord of the Rings and to cosmological developments from his still unpublished Quenta Silmarillion as it stood at that time.  These small edits included, for example, changing the phrase "elves that are now called Gnomes" from the first  and second  editions on page 63, to "High Elves of the West, my kin" in the third edition.  Tolkien had used "gnome" in his earlier writing to Essay on my friends - Can You Write ? to the second kindred of the High Elves—the Noldor (or "Deep Elves")—thinking "gnome", writing my research paper ways of selecting romantic par from the Greek gnosis (knowledge), was a good name for the wisest of the elves. However, because of its common denotation of a garden gnome, derived from the 16th-century Paracelsus, Tolkien abandoned the term.  Tolkien began a new version in 1960, attempting to adjust the tone of The Hobbit to its sequel. He abandoned the new revision at chapter three after he received criticism that it "just wasn't The Hobbit ", implying it had lost much of its light-hearted tone and quick pace.  Tolkien sent this revised version of the chapter "Riddles order of an essay vacation the Dark" to Unwin as an example of the kinds of changes needed to bring the book into conformity with The Lord of the Ringsbut he heard nothing back for years. When he was sent galley proofs of a new edition, Tolkien was surprised to find the sample text had been incorporated.  In The Lord of the Ringsthe original version of the riddle game is explained as a "lie" made up by Bilbo under the harmful influence of the Ring, whereas the revised version contains the "true" account.  The revised text became the second edition, published in 1951 in both the UK and the US.  In the first edition of The HobbitGollum willingly bets his magic ring on the outcome of the riddle-game, and he and Bilbo part amicably.  In the second edition edits, to reflect the new concept of the ring and its corrupting abilities, Tolkien made Gollum more aggressive towards Bilbo and distraught at losing the ring. The encounter ends with Gollum's curse, "Thief! Thief, Thief, Baggins! We hates it, we hates it, we hates it forever!" This presages Gollum's portrayal in The Lord of the Rings . In December 1937, The Hobbit 's publisher, Stanley Unwin, asked Tolkien for a sequel. In response Tolkien provided drafts for The Silmarillionbut the editors rejected them, believing that Should everyone go to college free essays studymode public wanted "more about hobbits".  Tolkien subsequently began work on The New Hobbitwhich would eventually become The Lord of the Rings a course that would not only change the context of the original story, but lead to substantial changes to the character of Gollum. Subsequent editions in English were published in 1951, 1966, 1978 and 1995. The novel has been reprinted frequently by many publishers.  In addition, The Hobbit has been translated into over forty languages, with more than one published version for some languages.  George Allen & Unwin Ltd. of London published the first edition of The Hobbit on 21 September 1937 with a print run of 1,500 copies, which sold out by December cee trust final report card of enthusiastic reviews.  This first printing was illustrated in black and white by Tolkien, who designed the dust jacket as well. Houghton Mifflin of Boston and New York reset type for an American edition, to be released early in 1938, in which four of the illustrations would be colour plates. Allen & Unwin decided to incorporate the colour illustrations into their second printing, released at the end of 1937.  Despite the book's popularity, paper rationing brought on by wartime conditions and not ending until 1949 meant that the Allen & Unwin edition of the book was often unavailable during this period.  The representation of the dwarves in The Hobbit by Tolkien was influenced by his own selective reading of medieval texts regarding the Jewish people and their history.  The dwarves' characteristics of being dispossessed of their ancient homeland at the Lonely Mountain, and living among other groups whilst retaining their own culture are all derived from the medieval image of Jews,   whilst their warlike nature stems from accounts in the Hebrew Bible.  The Dwarven calendar invented for The Hobbit reflects the Jewish calendar in beginning in late autumn.  And although Tolkien denied allegory, the dwarves taking Bilbo out of his complacent existence has been seen as an eloquent metaphor for the "impoverishment of Western society without Jews."  The name of the wizard Radagast is widely recognized to be taken from the name of the Slavic deity Rodegast.  Another influence from Old English sources is the appearance of named blades of renown, adorned in runes. It is in the use of his elf-blade that we see Bilbo finally taking his first independent heroic action. By his naming the blade "Sting" we see Bilbo's acceptance of the kinds of cultural and linguistic practices found in Beowulfsignifying his entrance into the ancient world in which he found himself.  This progression culminates in Bilbo stealing a cup from the dragon's hoard, rousing him to wrath—an incident directly mirroring Beowulfand an action entirely determined by traditional narrative patterns. As Tolkien wrote, "The episode of the theft arose naturally (and almost inevitably) from the circumstances. It highlights of qualifications on resume difficult to think of any other way of conducting the story top creative writing writer sites gb this point. I fancy the author of Beowulf would say much the same."  Themes found in Old English literature, and specifically in the poem Beowulfhave a heavy presence in defining the ancient world Bilbo stepped into. Tolkien, an accomplished Beowulf scholar, claims the poem to be among his "most valued sources" in writing The Hobbit.  Tolkien is credited with being the first critic to expound on Beowulf as a literary work with value buy essay online cheap gke task 4 merely historical, and his 1936 lecture Beowulf: the Monsters and the Critics is still required in some Old English courses. The Beowulf poem contains several elements that Tolkien borrowed for The Hobbitincluding a monstrous, intelligent dragon.  Certain descriptions in The Hobbit seem to have been lifted straight out of Beowulf with some minor rewording, such as when each dragon stretches out its neck to sniff for intruders.  Likewise, Tolkien's descriptions of the lair as accessed through a secret passage mirror those in Beowulf. Other specific plot elements and features in The Hobbit that show similarities to Beowulf include the title thief as Bilbo is called by Gollum and later also by Smaug, and Smaug's personality which leads to the destruction of Lake-town.  Tolkien refines parts of Beowulf 's report about dividend policy of any company reference list that he appears to have found less than satisfactorily described, such as details about the cup-thief and the dragon's intellect and personality.  Tolkien's use of descriptive personal and place names such as Misty Mountains and Bag End echoes the descriptive names used in Old Norse sagas.  The names of the dwarf-friendly ravens are also derived from Old Norse for 'raven' and 'rook',  but their characters are unlike the typical war-carrion from Old Norse and Old English literature.  Tolkien, however, is not simply skimming historical sources for effect: linguistic styles, especially the relationship between the modern and ancient, has been seen to be one of the major themes explored by the story.  Another characteristic of The Hobbit found in Old Norse sagas is maps accompanying the text of the story.  Several of the author's illustrations (including the dwarven map, the frontispiece and the dust jacket) make use of Anglo-Saxon runes, an English extension of the Germanic runic alphabets. Tolkien's works incorporate much influence from Norse mythology reflecting his lifelong passion for those stories and his academic career in Germanic philology.  The Hobbit is no exception to this; the work shows influences from northern European literature, myths and languages  and the strong influence of Norse mythology, especially from the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda. Examples include the names of some characters,  such as Fili, Kili, Oin, Gloin, Bifur, Bofur, Bombur, Dori, Nori, Buy top admission essay on hillary clinton, Balin, Dain, Nain, Thorin Oakenshield and Gandalf (deriving from the Old Norse names FíliKíliOinGlóiBivörBávörrBömburrDoriNóriDvalinnBláinDainNainÞorin Eikinskialdi and Gandálfr ). buy essay online cheap overview of the treatment of breast cancer But whilst their names are from Old Norse, the characters of the dwarves are more directly taken from fairy tales such as Snow White and Snow-White and Rose-Red as collected by the Brothers Grimm. The latter of these tales may have also influenced the character of Beorn.  Tolkien scholar Mark T. Hooker has cataloged a lengthy series of parallels between The Hobbit and Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth. Writing review articles University of Utah include, among other things, a hidden runic message and a celestial alignment that direct the adventurers to the goals of their quests.  Tolkien's portrayal of goblins in The Hobbit was particularly influenced by The Princess and the Goblin.  However, MacDonald influenced Tolkien more profoundly than just to shape individual characters and episodes; his works further helped Tolkien form his whole thinking on the role of fantasy within his Christian faith.  One of the greatest influences on Tolkien was the 19th century Arts and Crafts polymath William Morris. Tolkien wished to imitate Morris's prose and poetry romances,  following the general style and approach of the work. The Desolation of Smaug as portraying dragons as detrimental to landscape, has been noted as an explicit motif borrowed from Morris.  Tolkien wrote also of being impressed as a boy by Samuel Rutherford Crockett's historical novel The Black Douglas and of basing the Necromancer—Sauron—on its villain, Gilles de Retz.  Incidents in both The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings are similar in narrative and style to the novel,  and its overall style and imagery have been suggested as having had an influence on Tolkien.