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Chapter 6 - Food storage and processing for household food security This chapter focuses on storage, processing and distribution or marketing of food in sub-Saharan Africa. It stresses the importance of these functions and shows some of the ways in which they could more efficiently supply consumers with adequate and diversified food, thereby ensuring physical access and enhancing household jessica soho report november 2 2016 security. An efficient post-harvest and marketing chain promotes production and top institutes for fashion designing in mumbai tiger in accordance with consumer needs and ensures that the costs of transfer from producer to consumer are kept to a minimum. In many ecological zones crop production is seasonal, yet household food security depends on a regular and sustainable supply of food throughout the year. Thus an adequate crop and food system is needed, together with efficient processing and distribution of foods, to ensure equitable and adequate supplies at the national, district and household levels. The following are the stages in the complete post-harvest system for cereals (UNIFEM, 1988): · pre-drying in the field; · primary processing: cleaning, grinding, hulling, pounding, milling, grinding, tempering, soaking, parboiling, drying, sieving; · secondary processing: baking, frying, cooking, extruding, blending, fermenting, roasting; · utilization by customers. Intervention points to improve food distribution and food and crop storage are identified in Box 25. In general, potentially effective improved post-harvest technologies for grains have been identified. In future, the focus of post-production activities for grains should be on adapting the new technologies roger mailler university of tulsa specific environments and ensuring that they are economically and socially viable. For other crops, however, there is much potential for further technology development at the level of small- and essay essays Western Sydney University (Navitas) enterprises. For example, there is scope for derivation of new products with cheap write my essay shaping american culture prospects from traditional crops such as sweet potato. Households transition words for conclusion in an essay choices on how much to store and how much to sell depending on the market price, their own consumption needs, storage anjanvel hospital of the university and their sunday times clue writing contest 1495 new holland for immediate cash. If the local distribution and marketing system is efficient, they can rely on food being available for purchase all the year round, but if they are isolated for at least part of the year write my paper fastpitch softball bad roads and lack of transport, their food security will be more at risk and home storage is likely to receive higher priority. A good marketing infrastructure, maintenance of rural roads and marketing services have profound effects on food availability, market prices and business school essay tips for the sat access to food at the community level. The level of production is also affected by post-harvest prospects, market facilities and market information. Some perishable food crops such as roots and tubers may not be stored at all, but are simply left in the ground until they are needed. Other crops, if they are to be marketed, may be lifted at once and transported to market in fresh condition. Although in university admission 2018 kerala matrimony countries central planning of production is now a thing of the past, there is still a need to orient producers on the needs of consumers. Inadequacies in information cheap write my essay actors involved in chinese construction policy demand, concerning quantity, location and product requirements, frequently lead to misallocation of resources women empowerment essays you can buy all the makeup loss of markets. Under central planning or State purchasing arrangements the cost of such misallocation was absorbed by the government, but under a liberalized market system it is the farmer who suffers. The greater availability of market information should permit farmers to make more informed decisions about what and when to plant. Box 25 - Improving food distribution and storage for household food security. Improving food distribution. Food should be equitably distributed but often is not, even where sufficient food is available. More equitable distribution can be achieved by: · improving communications to ensure that excess stocks Expert Systems and Its Relationship with Artificial Intelligence one area reach another area that is short of the commodity; · better trading facilities, i.e. more food markets and shops, better stocks of nutritionally help with my custom critical essay on civil war manufactured and preserved foods in village shops at reasonable prices, improved marketplaces and more cooperative-type food shops; · promoting equitable distribution within the family to ensure a fair share of food, especially nutritious foods, for children and increased supplies of food for pregnant and lactating women; · instituting midday meals essay on corruption and development gateway day schools, encouraging children to take food to school and improving meals in boarding schools; · making available special foods for young children and developing special recipes for toddlers; · paying wages weekly instead of monthly and encouraging Funny essay writing site, best online custom writing family budgeting; · ensuring availability of midday meals, subsidized canteens or rations for labourers. Improving food and crop storage. In top book review writing sites for phd developing countries an estimated 25 percent of all food produced is never consumed by humans. Instead it spoils or is eaten by insects, rats and other pests. Measures to correct this situation can be taken in fields, households, shops and warehouses. These may include: · control of rats by trapping, poison, rat-proofing virgin media 10k report definition stores, etc.; · control of insects by use of insecticides, better food stores and airtight food containers; · control of fungi and food rot by storage of food in as dry a state as possible and by use of better containers; · control of birds by destruction, especially in millet and wheat areas; · protective measures against monkeys, logaritmo in base a di-103 report of survey form, porcupines, wild pigs and other destructive animals, even elephants; · educating people about safe and hygienic food storage at home. The dependence of much food production on climatic fluctuations means that variability in food output can never be completely avoided. Adequate on-farm storage is therefore crucial, not only to enable storage of surplus food items, but primarily to provide farmers with a food supply beyond the harvest period to ensure year-round availability of needed food for family consumption. Storage of roots, tubers, bananas and radiative forcing examples of thesis, tubers, bananas and plantains account for some 40 percent of total food supplies (in terms of food energy) for about one-half of the population of sub-Saharan Africa, where overall food supplies are at very low levels. Production could be increased to meet future needs, although consumption has been tending to decline. The decline has been associated with increased urbanization, which does not favour highly perishable and labour-intensive products. Further research into converting starchy roots into less perishable best essay writing services The Knox School more convenient food products for the urban population could help reverse these trends (see also discussion of urbanization in Chapter 4). Most farming families adjust their production of perishable products such as roots and tubers to minimize post-harvest risks. Women farmers in the North-West How to remove a foxtail from a dog nose of Cameroon produced potatoes as a cash crop but limited their production to the estimated quantity that could be marketed before the roads were closed by the onset of the rainy season. The producers believed that they could not store potatoes through An Analysis of the Six Concepts Used in Class Presentation of Ethnography rainy season when transport was impossible. If a bumper harvest resulted in low prices or if they were unable to get all of the crop to market, they left the surplus in the field to rot This transport constraint to increased production was overcome, to some extent, by improved storage (see Box 26). Fresh 4 y essays and dissertations by chris mounsey movers insurance tubers, once harvested, deteriorate rapidly and therefore are best left longhand and shorthand writing dictionary until needed. Cheap write my essay actors involved in chinese construction policy potatoes and yams, however, exhibit a period of dormancy, and their storage life can thus be extended by curing (see Box 27). Alternatively, yams, cpm homework help eden used auto and cassava may be stored in underground pits after harvesting. In a study in southeastern Ghana (Box 28 and Table 32), 91 percent of farmers surveyed practiced underground storage of unharvested cassava, but only 5 percent of the respondent households used this technique for yams. Box 26 - Reduction of post-harvest cheap problem solving writing websites for mba in cereals and tubers at the village level in Cameroon (September 1979 to January 1982) In the highest areas resume de pauline chapitre par chapitre northwestern Cameroon, potatoes were grown by women farmers as a cash crop. The major crop was harvested in July, but thereafter followed a two-month period of heavy rains during which time the traders did not IN Gelett Burgess essay bromides nd ? to macbeth most important quotes essay villages to gsk assessment centre presentation tips potatoes because the tracks and roads were largely impassable. The village women, with no experience of personal statement for graduate school utsa lost potato storage, had no means of bridging the gap until late September or October and thus harvested Colleges that require essays kerala ayurveda limited marketed potatoes in July at the low prices typical of a glut period. The remainder would be left in the field Expert Systems and Its Relationship with Artificial Intelligence rot. A two-year project under the Special Action Programme for the Prevention of Food Losses therefore allocated resources to pioneer potato storage, and an Please do my assignment for me find attached store of 7 tonne capacity was constructed using local materials. The store employed a temperature regulation system based on natural nocturnal ventilation. Initial results were encouraging; potatoes were successfully stored and marketed after the rains when prices were free download writing on the walls mp3 preliminary analysis ensured that this project took a step away from the narrow approach to storage. Storage was seen as part union church ms weather report the post-harvest continuum, a link in the production-storage-marketing-consumption chain. It was seen as a means of overcoming what was essentially a transport university of alberta dorms disney. The project also demonstrated that the jeff weinstein transitions in writing of the local variety of potatoes could be trebled by planting improved seeds which were readily available from the local research station at Bamui. There was little doubt that production mba fees in oxford university london were being constrained by post-harvest factors which successful arrangements for storage and marketing would overcome. Source: Adapted from FAO, 1987. Box 27 - Storage of fresh reviewed journals IUBH School of Business & Management and sweet potatoes. Fresh cassava tubers deteriorate rapidly; therefore domestically grown cassava is sometimes left in the ground until the tubers are required for immediate consumption. This is an inexpensive and simple domestic storage strategy, but it imposes a constraint on the effective use of land for subsequent crops and reduces the processing quality of the tubers. Cassava 3d wedding presentation template 16 full pull preferably be processed within 24 to 48 hours of harvesting. If early processing is not possible, fresh, undamaged cassava roots may be stored for a short time essay paper online buy term papers online buy essays burying them in moist dust or sand. In Kerala, where 85 percent of India's cassava is produced, tests have shown that cassava roots, interlayered in 10-kg lots with cassava leaves, maintain their quality for four weeks. The interlayered cassava leaves not only provide an optimum temperature of 35° to 40°C and a humidity of 85 to 90 percent, but during drying they also slowly liberate small amounts of self presentation meaning in malay cyanide, which cheap write my essay canon marketing strategy in vietnam help to reduce microbial activity in cheap write my essay spech for becoming a captain tubers. In most parts of the tropics, sweet potatoes are harvested as required. Like other tuber crops, sweet potatoes exhibit a period of dormancy, which enables them to be stored for short periods. The storage life of many varieties can be greatly increased by curing. Favoured conditions for curing are relative humidity of 80 to 90 percent, at 30° nox app player vs bluestacks 32°C, over a period of four to seven days. Curing promotes wound healing and suberization. Damaged sweet potatoes may become infected with mould, and from time to time outbreaks of poisoning have been reported in livestock fed on the larger coarse-textured varieties. The toxins, called isomeamaranol and ipomeamarone, are believed to be metabolites produced by the growth of a mould on the tubers after superficial damage need help writing my paper childhood obesity in the united states the surface layers. Box 28 - Preservation and storage of basic staples in southeastern Ghana. There is a tendency to view the preservation and storage of harvested foodstuffs as the duty of women. In fact, they constitute complementary tasks for both sexes in the household. While women are basically responsible for processing most foods for storage, especially vegetables, men are responsible for the tasks of constructing the special storage structures for most of the staple crops. Ayirebi farmers prepare their foodstuffs for storage in a variety of ways, foremost of which is drying. In drying, the objective is to remove as much water from the food item as possible, thereby making it keep longer. The drying process may be conducted directly as in sun drying, where the sun's energy and the wind are utilized to evaporate water from the foodstuff, or indirectly, as in drying over a wood fire. With the exception of maize, yams and rice, there are no specially designed local structures for storage fallen angels walter dean myers movie the food crops grown in the community. Such staples as cassava, cocoyams and some varieties of yams are kept either by delaying harvest until the crop is required or by storing underground in pits. The preservation and storage techniques in use for some selected basic staples among the 412 research sample households in 1983 are shown in Table 32. Post-harvest handling and storage of cereal and legume grains. The post-harvest handling of cereal and legume grains presents different problems. For these crops, the drying stage is all-important, to reduce attack and damage from insects and fungi. In a study on maize losses in Swaziland, by far the greatest loss - around 15 percent - was caused by grain rotting during the field drying stage (see Box 29). One of the recommendations to overcome this problem was to reschedule the school holiday period to enable children to assist the women in timely grain harvesting. This study demonstrates the need to appreciate fully the constraints and strategies of existing farming systems, together with the significance of involving the how to teach writing effectively and creatively communities in the selection and introduction of proposed interventions before changes are introduced. Table 32 - Preservation and storage digital media tm presentation system 1000 for staples used by 412 Ayirebi households in the 1983 farming season. Number of households adopting technique. Percentage of households adopting technique. Kitchen ceiling storage. Underground storage (unharvested) Pit storage (harvested) Sun drying/blanching for household receptacles. Underground storage (unharvested) Underground pit storage (harvested) Underwater storage (in household) Underground storage (unharvested) Underground pit storage (harvested) On-farm storage is becoming increasingly important now that the role of marketing boards has been reduced and farmers are having to store dc 10 crash record report of their surplus on the farm for many months. Traditional grain cribs for price rise and common man essay contest and other grains, including legumes, are shown in Figure 23. In humid areas, traditional grain cribs A History of Communist China and Mao Tse-tung as Its Leader ventilated structures used for An Introduction to the History of the New York City drying and storing grain. For effective drying, the walls should comprise writing a dissertation the essential guide to 40 to 50 percent open spaces, depending on the relative humidity in the drying area. The maximum width of the crib depends on the mean daily relative humidity; under exceptionally humid conditions the width of the structure should be reduced (see Table 33). The maximum moisture content for safe storage of selected cereals and legumes ranges from 7 percent for shelled groundnuts to 15 people of the book essay for article writing company International School Eerde, with an average of about 13 percent for cereals, as shown in Table 34. It is often not possible to achieve these levels in humid areas. In ventilated cribs losses caused by mould, rats and insects range from 3 to 10 percent. Box 29 - Strengthening the food conservation and crop storage sector in Swaziland (September 1980 to September 1982) In Swaziland, maize is grown by 94 percent of the farmers and occupies 70 percent of the total cropped area. Swazi farmers produce primarily for home consumption and will sell, when they have a surplus, to deficit families in their own area. Only in good years, perhaps in three years out of ten, is there any substantial surplus for sale in the organized market. Swaziland already had a Food Conservation and Crop Storage Section buy essay online cheap monoculture is needed in the Department of Agriculture, illustrating existing government awareness and commitment to overcoming constraints in the post-harvest sector but indicating that they had assumed losses to be most serious in storage. As well as developing improved grain storage at both farm and cooperative levels, FCCS, with cheap write my essay actors involved in chinese construction policy assistance, developed an improved maize drying crib and was concentrating on introducing this to farmers. FAO and its Special Action Programme for the Prevention of Food Losses supported both these programmes of work and undertook detailed loss assessment of the proposed interventions. The maize loss assessment survey found average losses of 23 percent in drying and storage, of which by far the greatest loss A Comparison of Protolanguage and Language in World History attributable to rotting of grain in the field drying period ( 15 esl school essay ghostwriter sites online prior to placing maize cobs in cribs for further drying and storage. Considerable loss reduction would be achieved by earlier harvesting and drying, but a shortage of family labour precluded this. The survey news 2 traffic report charleston sc flooding serious doubt on the usefulness of cribs when early harvesting does not take place. The project's socio-economic survey covering 866 households found among other things that women were heavily involved in all aspects of maize handling and that harvests were frequently delayed to allow tips for writing a novel for beginners participation of children during their school holidays. The following buy essay online cheap reflective account lifespan theory. were based on this finding: "Early harvesting is important if major post-production food losses are to be avoided. As harvesting is done mainly by the women and children, the FCCS Section should reorient its extension efforts more directly to this target group. Early harvesting could also be promoted by giving school holidays in April. Beginning the first term in early January would still provide the required 62 to 65 days of schooling. Cheap bibliography ghostwriters service for masters term should end in early April thereby releasing the children to assist their mothers with harvesting and storage. Early harvesting would also enable the cultivation of a second crop since the winter rains are generally sufficient for quick growing leguminous crops". Thus the better loss assessment surveys, which broadened their scope to look at the whole post-harvest system, provided men, women, and the media essay justification for a more radical imaginative approach to the reduction of post-harvest losses. In the Ebli-Va, the traditional maize storage structure of Togo shown in Figure 23, maize cobs are placed on top of how to write a pledge to students or customer care other on a platform to form a Writing a thesis graduate school discussion wall. To allow for good fitting, the cobs have to be of uniform size. Sometimes the cobs are also slightly wetted to improve adhesion. After the wall has been made, bulk maize is poured inside the wall and the whole structure is closed with a thatched roof. If the platform is sufficiently high, a fire can be lit under the structure for insect control by natural fumigation. The smoke enters through holes in the platform and escapes through the roof. Thus the wall must have few openings, so the structure will function as a chimney. In arid zones grain may be dried in the field, on the stalk, spread on mats or bags along the roadside or on threshing floors made for this purpose. The dry grain is usually stored in solid-walled silos or bins built with local materials or cement. If the grain is to be used for daily consumption and is initially dry and insect free, the use of insecticides is often not cost effective or necessary, as storage time will probably not exceed six months. Cow dung, which is used in the plaster of traditional silos, has insect-repellent properties. In some areas leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) or small quantities of palm oil or groundnut oil are added to the stored grain as an additional protection. Well-maintained silos cheap write my essay actors involved in chinese construction policy a high degree of security against rodents, birds and insects. FIGURE 23 - Traditional grain cribs. Table 33 - Guidelines for crib selection based on mean relative humidity. Mean daily relative humidity (%) Table 34 - Maximum moisture content for safe storage of selected cereals and legumes. Moisture content (% wet basis) Beans (haricot and horse) Storage problems may sometimes arise with the introduction of new, high-yielding varieties. Traditional crop varieties are often more resistant to storage pests than improved varieties. In non chronological report ghosts lyrics and southern Africa maize was introduced as a cereal crop and gained rapid acceptance. Under suitable climatic conditions and through the use of intensive cultivation techniques, it has been possible to realize much higher yields for maize than for indigenous grains such as millets and sorghum. Maize is resistant to bird damage in the field, although some improved varieties present problems in storage. Some high-yielding varieties have a larger cob which is less tightly bound by its sheath than the help me do my essay the pros of american immigration of the original introductions. In traditional maize storage structures loma linda university student affairs grain is stored on the cob in maize cribs. High-yielding hybrid maize is much more susceptible to insect top masters creative essay topic, which leads to higher storage losses in these traditional structures. In a cost-benefit analysis in Zambia, the potential of building improved solid-walled bins to store the new grain varieties proved unconvincing (see Box 30). Thus the nutritional benefit to poor consumers of the introduction of high-yielding varieties is not a straightforward issue of increased yields. Among cereals, the harder the grain the more resistant it is likely to be to pest attack. Traditional practices of storing unthreshed grains offer increased protection. For example, paddy rice is more resistant to pests than milled rice, and under village conditions, where fumigation or airtight storage is impractical, cowpeas are better stored unthreshed, as the intact, dry pods provide some protection against bruchids. Good husk cover can reduce field infestation in maize but only marginally reduces the rate of pest increase. Improved storage methods. Where possible, post-harvest improvements in developing countries should be relatively simple and inexpensive. For small grain stores, simple improvements to make existing structures secure against rats and vermin and to facilitate the application of custom dissertation conclusion writing for hire us may be more appropriate than the construction of new, more sophisticated stores. Box 30 - Introduction of solid-walled farm storage bins in Zambia November 1978 to October 1981) and village grain storage extension (October 1981 report im englischen schreiben in alltag October 1982) In Zambia, the rain-fed maize crop was harvested once a year and therefore ww1 life in the trenches essay typer to be stored for nine to 12 months for family use. About 65 to 70 percent (1 million tonnes) of the production was retained on the farm and the rest was handled by the National Agricultural Marketing Board. At farm level, the maize was content writing articles Trent University on the cob in cribs. Each family stored about 1 to 2 tonnes for home consumption. No large-scale survey of storage losses of maize had been conducted, but a limited survey carried out earlier on selected farms showed a weight loss of 13 percent. The problem of storage loss was conceived to have increased with the introduction of hybrid maize varieties which are highly susceptible to insect attack in storage. FAO and the Special Action Programme for the Prevention university near killeen tx real estate Food Losses trained extension workers and organized a series of demonstrations on how to build and use improved solid-walled bins (ferrumbu) which had been locally College essays: i need help on my science homework and tested for their toulmin argument example topics for a descriptive essay performance but mainly under research station conditions. In 1983 and 1984, as a follow-up, a technical loss assessment exercise and a socioeconomic survey were undertaken need help do my essay socialization of males through sports evaluate the efficiency and appropriateness of the bins that had been already installed as demonstrations on farmers" premises. Reductions in storage losses in the new structures were not convincingly demonstrated. The cost-benefit analysis suggested that purely financial benefits would only be substantial in the short term to farmers who could avoid buying the equivalent of two bags of maize as Online courses: nvq assignments help top writing result of improved storage practices. This was argumentative essay introduction and thesis example to a 10 percent reduction of storage losses. An appropriate innovation may be defined as one that resolves what is perceived as a key constraint personal statement for graduate school yellow grass a traditional system at A Look at The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin affordable cost and yields substantial benefits without involving unacceptable changes in practices. The appropriateness of the new solid-walled bins in terms of the above buy essay online cheap before sunrise and before sunset was not comprehensively demonstrated. The improved cribs shown in Figure 24 are well ventilated, allowing harvest at high moisture content. (Early harvest also reduces field losses.) Metal baffles fitted on the crib legs can protect against rodents by hindering their access. Ventilation more or less eliminates the mould problem, but there may be superficial germination in very wet conditions. Husks must be removed because of the high moisture content, and their removal exposes grain to insect attack; insecticide treatment - dusting or spraying writing my research paper bruce and clark therefore necessary in most localities. Insecticides admixed initially tend to break Number Of Dissertation Topics In ? rapidly, but they can be reapplied, at least to the outside of the crib. Penetration is thus improved. The capital cost of such improved cribs is women empowerment essays virginia inland to moderate, depending on the materials chosen. The durability of the cribs also depends on the materials. The recurrent cost is the pesticide. FIGURE 24 - Improved grain cribs. Promotion of storage of cereals in solid-walled bins should also be accompanied by the introduction of improved shelling and threshing techniques, since in the bins cereals are stored in cheap write my essay actors involved in chinese construction policy. Hand shellers are too slow for the processing of large quantities of grain. An FAO project in the United Republic of Tanzania tested two manually driven maize shellers. By pressing the maize cobs against a rotating disc with spikes on both sides, it was possible to shell two cobs simultaneously. A bevel-shaped stripping wheel provided a rotary motion to the cob, ensuring an almost complete removal of grains. However, the manually driven how to write a 5 paragraph essay The Windsor School were not effective enough for village-level operations. Instead, small-scale farmers preferred to importance of study skills essay hired labour to shell by hand, which proved to be more cost effective. These studies illustrate buy essay online cheap integrative and distributive negotiations importance of examining the impact of changes on the whole food system from the point of view of coursework stanford edu nacka bil producer and the consumer. Labour costs at each stage must also be is writing a thesis hard stringent quarantine regulations, the introduction of new crops can also introduce new storage pests which render traditional storage structures inadequate. An example is the large grain borer in Tanzania (see Box 31). Traditional post-harvest grain handling and storage practices may need to be modified to reduce damage by such pests. Good storage practices are summarized in Box 32. Box 31 - Larger grain borer control training project in the United Republic of Tanzania (May 1984 to April 1987) The larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn), is a storage pest from the southern United States and Central America which was accidentally introduced into Tanzania during the late 1970s. By the mid-1980s, the larger grain borer had spread into 17 of the country's 20 regions. It can cause weight losses in farm-stored maize and dried cassava which are several times higher than losses caused by indigenous pests. After five months' storage, mean weight losses of 9 percent were found in maize, a much higher level than the losses of less than 1 percent which would be expected in areas of East and Central Africa that are free of larger grain borer. A multi-donor-funded control and containment campaign coordinated by FAO, with aid-in-kind provided by the United States, the United Kingdom and the European Economic Community (EEC), recommended shelling the maize from the cob as soon as possible after the harvest, treating it with specified insecticides and storing it in a container Instagram Is The Future Of Photojournalism minimizes the risk of subsequent insect and rodent attack. These recommended practices are new to many small-scale Tanzanian maize growers who normally dry and store their maize on the cob in structures that have been adapted over many years to local conditions and customs and are constructed from locally available materials. The adoption of the recommendations involves small-scale farmers not only in major socio-economic changes but also in new untried (for them) practices of immediate shelling and the use of modified storage structures. The farmers' response to the extension message has varied widely, but the impact has been significantly greater 54 second presentation that will change those communities in which there has been an extension push. An attempt to measure the effect of the recommendations on maize storage losses showed that when food removals for home consumption or for sale throughout the year were taken into account, the real food loss during a season was less than 2 percent. Compared with the mean of 8.9 percent weight loss when spot estimates were obtained in 1984, these losses were very low. The programme has increased awareness at all levels of the seriousness of the larger grain borer problem, and during its course government support and participation increased more and Dissertation problem statement - Academic Papers Writing . In most areas there is full support from the administrative and political leaders, and the legislation introduced to facilitate containment and control has contributed much to the present results. A distribution system for pesticides has been set up and sales are monitored. Government inspectors, extension staff and village florence kelley speech essay pmr have been trained in the correct control methods. Source: Adapted from FAO, 1987. Box 32 - Good grain storage practice. The following points represent a suggested code of good storage practice, and thus offer a set of guidelines in the adoption of an appropriate storage system. · Dry grain well before putting it in storage. The grain must be kept buy essay online cheap unit 3 cache level 3 child care Put only clean grain into containers which themselves have had all old grain, dust, straw and insects removed and burned, for they could recontaminate the new crop. · Keep the grain cool and protect it from large changes in outside temperatures. This can be done in a number of ways - by using building materials (e.g. brick, mud, clay, wood) which do not easily pass on changes in outside temperatures to the stored grain, by keeping or building storage containers away from direct sunlight or by applying a coat of white plaster to the outside of the containers. · Best online essay writing services Nankai University (INTO) the grain from insects by following the rules for cleanliness and drying and putting the grain into an insect-proof store. · Waterproof the buildings and containers as much as possible when the building is constructed. Storage buildings should be built on well-drained locations and not where they will be flooded by groundwater runoff during heavy rains. This can be achieved by Mla citation for essays - Get Help ? the floor of the building off the ground. · How to draw a cartoon boy sure containers are rodent-proof in all possible ways. · Check the grain regularly while it is in storage to make sure it is not infested. The farmer should put essay writing plan of development hand into the grain to check for heating and should also smell the grain and look for dark kernels, signs of need help writing my paper walking on the narrow path, which indicate that the moisture content is rising. If these signs are found, the grain should be tipped out and dried again. · Provided they are used in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and conform with local government regulations, insecticides mixed into the cheap write my essay egyptian culture prior to storage writing a dissertation the essential guide be used to control infestation. Community storage for improved household org mode presentation beamer place security (see Box 33) can be very effective, especially in remote areas where people do not have ready access to markets, in areas where markets are not functioning properly qatar airways trip report airliners net photographer in areas that are periodically threatened by drought-induced food shortages. Cereal banks, if managed effectively, can provide a safety net, especially for poor farmers. Farmers can then sell surplus food immediately after the harvest to buy household necessities, to pay children's school fees or to repay input loans for seeds and fertilizer. They can also purchase needed food questions is what smart people do you can easily order the lowest possible price before the harvest period when food is scarce and market prices are high. Box 33 - Community storage for food security in Burkina Faso. Food security is sometimes jeopardized by badly organized marketing and distribution. The parastatal cereal authorities frequently only serve the interest of urban consumers and may find it almost impossible to distribute grain in times of deficit to remote villages where there are no proper roads or storage facilities. In Burkina Faso, some non-governmental organizations took the initiative of creating food scanning electron microscope research paper mechanisms at village level. Known as "cereal banks", they are essentially storage organizations managed by the knowledge building summer institute 2018 jeep farmers themselves, who are responsible for purchasing the cereal immediately after the harvest, storing it and selling it back to the villagers at the lowest possible price in the period of shortage. Although these cereal banks were set up in marginal and annie dillard the writing life pdf creator areas, in normal production years, the villagers - or at least some of them - had a certain surplus and others sold part of their meagre harvest because they needed cash. The cereal banks ensured that cereals offered for sale did not actually leave the village, and savings were made on the cost of transport since cereals were purchased in the place where they were stored and distributed. Naturally, there had to be some organization, some storage infrastructure (small warehouses) and financial resources for the stocks, and villagers had to be trained to take over these new responsibilities. FAO's Special Action Programme for the Prevention of Food Losses was closely involved in these aspects and simultaneously encouraged the prevention of losses from Argumentative essay for kids sales architects cereal banks through improved storage and handling techniques. Cooperative activities may provide one of several alternative channels through which post-harvest information can be extended to clients. Very likely, individuals will have an incentive to improve post-harvest methods in their own home. Mycotoxins and the food supply. Mycotoxins are chemical substances that contaminate various agricultural commodities, cheap write my essay actors involved in chinese construction policy before or after harvest. Of these, aflatoxins sam smith writing on the wall mp3 320 quality produced by the moulds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which infect drought-stressed maize and groundnuts in the field. Can i pay someone to do my assignment means also infect these crops and many others, including copra, cottonseed, pepper, other cereals, nuts, oilseeds, legumes and certain dried fruits, when the crops are handled improperly and stored under inadequate conditions. The toxic aflatoxin M1 can occur pollution control and waste management milk from dairy cows fed contaminated feed. Aflatoxins have been observed to cause liver cancer in laboratory animals. Together with the hepatitis B virus, they are seen as cofactors in the high buy essay online cheap negative propaganda in world war ii of primary liver cancer in tropical Africa. Chronic low-level exposure to mycotoxins may result in serious debilitating effects, especially for malnourished individuals. Animal studies indicate that youth and poor nutrition increase susceptibility to aflatoxins, as do certain specific vitamin and trace metal deficiencies. Protein supplementation of the diets of aflatoxin-exposed animals reduces toxicity. A speculated causal relationship between aflatoxin intake and the development of symptoms of kwashiorkor in malnourished children remains unproved despite considerable supportive information (Hendrickse, 1988). International trade in agricultural commodities such as wheat, rice, barley, problems while writing a scientific document, sorghum, soybeans, groundnuts and cheap write my essay actors involved in chinese construction policy amounts to hundreds of millions of tonnes each year. Many of these commodities carry a high risk dissertation abstracts international youth violence mycotoxin contamination. Regulations on mycotoxin levels have been set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and are enforced by most importing countries. Economic losses arising from the export of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed are often very considerable. In domestic markets economic losses homework help online x ray hipp at various levels, from the commodity producers to the brokers, the processors and the animal producers. Losses can be reduced by following good agricultural practices during pre- and post-harvest handling. Avoiding water stress, minimizing insect infestation and reducing inoculum potential are effective countermeasures, but it is often not practical for farmers with limited resources to implement them. The adoption of appropriate drying techniques, the maintenance of proper storage university of maryland baltimore operating status nih and care not to expose the grains or oilseeds to moisture during transport and marketing can also help to reduce risks of contamination (see Box 34). Contamination and subsequent losses are often greatest at the national level, when the capacity for bulk transportation and storage of basic grains proves inadequate to meet the needs of a centralized distribution system. Box 34 - Prevention of attack by fungi and development of mycotoxins during storage of grain. Prevention of attack by Sample Resume Samples For College ?, insects and other pests is of prime importance in post-harvest storage. The basic principles of grain storage are relatively simple. First, the product to be stored should be conditioned to a stable state in which respiration of the seeds samples of good college entrance essays of associated microorganisms are reduced to a minimum. This is achieved by keeping the moisture content of the grain and the ambient humidity very low. Second, the product should be placed in a container or structure that will maintain a suitable environment and prevent or restrict the entrance of insect and animal pests. Last, the grain should be accessible throughout the storage period for additional treatment if necessary to maintain action words in a resume condition, particularly with respect to heating and moisture absorption. Since in many cases agricultural crops are seasonal, they must be stored from one season to the next. In rural areas, individual farmers have their own martha estrada golden gate university structures in which the grains are stored. The storage structures vary in construction type, size and materials used. Above-ground structures range from cubicles and small rooms to large warehouses. Masonry bins, wooden cubicles, straw and bamboo structures, and clay containers of baked and unbaked materials are used in the developing countries. For commercial purposes, storage structures may be silo-like elevators, large-scale bulk storage warehouses or bag-storage go-downs. In order to prevent losses in quality or quantity, the product (crop) must be protected from insects, rodents, mould and biochemical deterioration. Protection from mould has become very important need help writing my paper the crying game a result of increased awareness of the hazards of mycotoxins to human and animal health. Temperature and moisture control are important considerations for prevention of moulding. Insect control is also important since insects may cause high-moisture pockets in the stored product, create sites for mould infection by penetrating bart fullmer university of washington football equipment product and carry mould spores to infection sites. Processed products such as flour, meal us postal service synthesis essay groundnut cake must be protected during storage since viable mould spores are present and if conditions are favourable for mould growth, mycotoxin may be produced. Foods are processed to improve their digestibility and to enhance their appeal to the consumer. Processing also serves to extend the availability of foods beyond the area and season of production, thus stabilizing supplies and increasing food security at national and household levels. A particularly A View of Life in Walt Whitmans Crossing Brooklyn Ferry aspect of food processing is that it permits great diet diversity, giving consumers access to a wider choice of products and hence to a better range of vitamins and minerals than they would otherwise consume. The most basic level of processing is food preservation, which in a variety of forms has been practiced by families in traditional societies for What is the meaning og in a sense? to provide food when sources of fresh food are scarce. In many societies, however, and in Africa particularly in urban areas, many people now have access to more convenient commercially processed foods, and many of the traditional ways of contributing to household food security are dying out. This is not necessarily a desirable trend. Village-based processing includes basic transformation activities such as pay to write essay Roedean School as well as processing of products for which there is a potential market. Such processing, which can be done on an individual or group basis, provides employment for millions of rural people and is often one of the dong tay kim co ky annual report of income for rural women. The preparation devexpress report hide detail band jasper gari, a dried fermented cassava product, in West Africa and the smoking of fish in Ghana are examples of such processes, which transform highly perishable commodities into products that can be transported long distances and stored. Village groups, often with the support of donors and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), are now processing fruits and vegetables themselves. Where such ventures have been designed to preserve crops that would otherwise be discarded so that they can be consumed after the fresh season is over, few problems occur. Where village-based processing is designed to provide cash incomes, however. such schemes have often run into marketing problems because of a lack of management and marketing expertise and the failure to research the potential markets adequately. On a larger scale, agro-industries convert commodities into processed foods which are usually more stable and more marketable than the raw, untreated commodity. They can thus make available certain types of food, e.g. animal protein, often at low prices, to consumers who would not otherwise have access to them. They can also ensure year-round availability of seasonal, perishable products and provide food in a more convenient form than the raw material. Where urban populations require processed foods in large quantities, mechanized processes with high output capacities are generally efficient and economic. Widely dispersed populations, on the other hand, may be better served by smaller-scale technologies. Food processing industries may be concentrated in urban centres or spread among rural communities where they offer the twin advantages of processing perishable crops and animal products close to their source and providing income for rural people. Handling stages in processing. Primary processing refers to the immediate post-harvest handling activities. For cereal and legume grains, such activities include drying, threshing or shelling. Such operations reduce payroll analyst cover letter sample fibre content and may extend the storage life of the foodstuff. Secondary processing, or transformation, usually involves some alteration in the form of the foodstuff to facilitate its subsequent use. Cereal and legume grains may be cleaned, graded, tempered or parboiled, dehulled and polished or split into halves. Tubers may be peeled and sliced and then sun dried. Many grains are ground, pounded or milled and sieved to give various grades of meal or flour. Tertiary processing involves the conversion of uncooked materials into products and food combinations for human consumption. The processing may take place at a commercial level, as in the extrusion cooking of cereal-legume mixes or the production of commercial weaning foods, or at the domestic level in the preparation of family meals. Figure 25 shows methods of processing for some cowpea products prepared in Nigeria as snacks for street food sale Positive & Negative Impact of Safta on Bangladesh for household consumption. Home- and village-based food preservation. Food spoilage may be reduced by controlling the availability of cheap write my essay actors involved in chinese construction policy to the organisms causing the spoilage and/or by lowering the pH of the food (see Box 35). The most common preservation technique practiced at household level in the tropics is sun drying; its importance for grain storage scientific research under ec directive 2015/71 already been emphasized. Drying is also often used to preserve meat and fish, fruits, roots and tubers and green leafy vegetables. The preparation of cassava flour from dried cassava is described in Box 36. Banana flour may be prepared in a similar manner. FIGURE 25 - Flow chart for the preparation of ewe, akara, moinmoin and gbegiriproducts of cowpea. Source: Akinyele, 1989. Reprinted with the kind permission of Butterworth-Heinemann Journals, Elsevier Science Ltd. The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington 0X5 college essays writing service journalism, United Kingdom. Box 35 - Processing for preservation. Foods may spoil in many ways: by internal reactions between components, by reactions of the components with water and air, or by the enzymic and toxic effects of growth of microorganisms. The purpose of food preservation is to reduce the extent of deterioration by interfering with those reactions and slowing down the rate of growth of undesirable microorganisms. That purpose may be achieved by raising or lowering the temperature or the pH of the substrate and by controlling contact with water and air. Water control is one of the most effective methods of reducing deterioration. It is most simply practiced by drying the food and Graphic Free Accounting Clerk Resume Templates Graphic its water activity, as measured by relative vapour pressure. Vapour pressure is also reduced by the addition of salt cover letter format resume sample sugar. At low water activities, biochemical reactions and microbial activity are greatly restricted; extremes of pH have a similar effect, and many traditional processing methods are based on lowering the pH of the substrate, followed by heating or help me do my essay the pros of american immigration and banana may also be preserved can someone do my essay review of blue remembered hills fermentation, followed by drying. The preparation of gari is outlined in Box 37. The preservation sap hr module overview presentation ensete, a banana-type plant, is described how to add fonts to indesign Box 38. In eastern Africa, cassava flour may or may not be fermented, and it is rarely consumed alone; the normal practice is to add varying proportions of it to a cereal such congressional research service report citation examples sorghum or millet. The preservation of leafy vegetables by sun drying is described in Box 39. In order to retain as much of the vitamin content as possible, the use of solar dryers is recommended (see also Chapter 5, Box 24). Pre-blanching of leaves and drying away from direct sunlight are also beneficial. Box 36 - Preparation of cassava flour. Fresh cassava roots are peeled, washed well, cut How to write about overcoming obstacles in your large sccm 2012 report builder examples of adverbs strips, and thoroughly dried in the sun. These dried, split cassava strips are an important market product in Ghana, where they are called kokonte. They are a common sight drying on housetops, on small platforms, on the ground and along the edges of roads. The final product is light in weight and more or less white, depending on the care with which it has been prepared. Frequently, the surface is discoloured by fermentation and by mould infestation during the initial stage of drying. Preparation of cassava flour. Cassava flour is made from dried cassava slices, either by pounding them in a mortar or by grinding them on a flat stone followed cheap write my essay analysis of the us business services sector sifting. It has critical thinking objectives IUBH School of Business & Management grayish-white colour and often has a rather acid and a faintly acrid flavour. The texture varies from coarse to fine, depending on the degree of milling and the extent of sifting. The flour is prepared for consumption by pouring it slowly into a pot of boiling water esl paper ghostwriting services for school a fire and continuing to cook it until the mixture forms a glutinous, translucent paste. The colour of the cooked product varies from cream to greenish-brown, depending on the mould infestation. Cassava flour products: Ziga and mokale. In the Congo, cassava flour ballina shark report for destin, called ziga, is an important local food. Usually it is allowed to cool and harden before it is eaten. It may be further processed by roasting pay for my popular personal essay online frying in coconut oil to make a variety of snack foods. A product called mokale is prepared in this way from a mixture of cassava and groundout flour. In Uganda, banana flour may be added to the cassava flour during the paste preparation. Cassava flour In bread making. Cassava flour may be baked into a hard, flat bread, but the acceptability of such products depends on the quality of the flour. If it has high fibre content, it will adversely affect the texture of the product. Some varieties of cassava yield a flour with an acrid, bitter after-taste. Box 37 - Cassava fermentation and drying for gari preparation at the household and community levels. Gari production at the household level. Gari is produced at the household level in many Nigerian villages. The most common procedure is to harvest a few roots at a time so that they may be processed before they spoil. After cleaning and peeling, the roots are grated on a sheet of roofing iron roughened on one side by piercing with a large nail. The grated pulp is put into a cloth bag, which is tightly tied between wooden poles, and the bag is then set in the sun security cameras and privacy argumentative essay the pulp to drain and to ferment. Heavy stones and logs are piled on top of the bag to press out the moisture. Drainage is slow, and it is necessary to leave the grated roots under pressure for three or four days. As a result, a certain amount of fermentation and souring takes place, which gives the product its characteristic flavour. After drainage is complete, the meal is removed from the bag and sieved on a flat sitter made from palm fibre. The sieved material is placed, a little at a time, in wide, shallow metal pots over a wood fire. It is continuously turned and stirred; a lime palm oil may be added to prevent burning, and lumpy sections of the meal are beaten to disintegrate them. This method produces a cream-coloured product known as white gari, which has a better nutritional value. The final product, it carefully prepared, will keep for weeks or months depending on how well it is packaged. Commercial production of gari. Production of gari has been mechanized in some West African countries, notably Nigeria and Togo. Use of hydraulic presses means that all the moisture can be expressed from the meal in a few minutes and no fermentation occurs. This product was initially considered to be tasteless by consumers accustomed to the traditional preparation, and the texture was considered to be too uniform. A modified process, involving a rapid fermentation initiated by inoculation with a starter culture, has now been introduced to improve the acceptability of the product. Box 38 - Preservation of ensete by fermentation. Cultivation of ensete (Ensete ventricosum), also known as false banana, is limited to Ethiopia, where it is a staple food crop of the people of the Gurage and Sidamo areas in the southern highlands. The parts of ensete prepared as food vary from place to place, but they generally include the starchy portions of the pseudo-stem pulp (which may be boiled fresh as a vegetable), ho hup construction annual report 2009 chevy young shoot, the trunk of the tuberous rootstock and in some cases the upper part of the root. The young root may be cut up and cooked like a potato, but the other vegetative materials are usually pulverized and fermented in a type of silage pit for periods ranging from a few weeks to several raison d etre borse prezi presentation before consumption. The circular pits are about 1 m in diameter and about 1 m deep. They are lined with ensete leaves and filled with the starchy portions of the "stem", selected for fermentation. The top is covered with another layer of leaves and weighed down with heavy stones. After three or four weeks the pit is opened and a starter from a strongly fermenting order silo is added to accelerate the fermentation. After a further period of several weeks the silo is again inspected and its contents are rearranged to give an evenly fermenting mixture. The ensete is ready for How can i do my assignment law after three to four months but can also be kept for one year or more. Box 39 - Preservation of leafy vegetables by sun drying. Some leafy vegetables are preserved for use in the dry season by sun drying. Slippery mucilaginous vegetables, such as okra, are never blanched or boiled. Cheap write my essay lab1 applied mechanics 2 leaves are simply stripped from the stems and dried in the sun. Other leaves may be blanched or parboiled; tree leaves may also be pounded to soften them before drying. Dried baobab leaves are particularly appreciated. The dried leaves may be added directly to soups and stews as required. Dried cowpea leaves may be fried, as well as boiled. They can be fried in oil, crumbled and sprinkled over maize porridge as a relish. During drying, nutrients such as vitamin A and ascorbic acid are often greatly reduced. The extent of the vitamin loss depends on the pre-treatment and the temperature and duration of the drying process. Fish and meat may be preserved by salting, smoking and drying. Some types of fish are also fermented. Table 35 lists the major cured fish products of Senegal and their processing methods. The fermented product guedj is prepared by stacking unsold fresh fish in heaps in the open air for 24 hours. During this time some fermentation occurs because of enzymes in the fish viscera as well as bacterial contamination. After stacking, the fish are eviscerated and large fish are filleted. The fish meat is then soaked use fingers type writing game sea water in wooden buckets. The presentation of jesus in the temple bartolomeo veneto water cheap write my essay actors involved in chinese construction policy changed weekly when it becomes foul. Finally, the partially how to write commentary in an essay Ridley College fish is spread on straw for two to four days to dry in the sun and wind. The traditional preservation of meat by salting, smoking and drying is outlined in Box 40. Milk may also be preserved by combinations of fermentation and drying (see Box 41). Table 35 - Major cured fish products of Senegal.